Robert Heaton

Software Engineer /
One-track lover / Down a two-way lane

PFAB #9: Batch vs Stream processing

08 Feb 2020

This post is part of my “Programming Feedback for Advanced Beginners” series, which helps you make the leap from knowing syntax to writing clean, elegant code. Subscribe now to receive PFAB in your inbox, every fortnight, entirely free.

How many WhatsApp messages do you think you’ve exchanged with your best friend? Adarsh Rao, PFAB reader, wanted to find out. He downloaded his WhatsApp message logs and wrote a program to analyze his conversations. He found that he and his best friend had sent each other a respectable 110,000 words. “We’ve essentially written 2 novels between us if my Google search for ‘average novel length’ is at all accurate,” he notes.

Adarsh’s program already works perfectly (here’s the code). But he wants to know how he can make it cleaner and tidier, and I’ve got a couple of suggestions for him. This week, I’d like to talk about the high-level structure of Adarsh’s program. In particular I’d like to discuss a common tradeoff in data processing: batch or streaming? Today we’ll learn what these words mean, how we can use them to construct data processing pipelines, and how to evaluate the tradeoffs between different ways of solving problems.

Batch or streaming?

A WhatsApp message log file looks like this:

7/28/19, 10:56 PM - Kimi: Hi. This is a business enquiry requesting a picture of your Dog.
7/28/19, 10:56 PM - Guarav: Hi, yes
7/28/19, 10:57 PM - Guarav: Thank you for getting in touch with us
7/28/19, 10:57 PM - Guarav: We are assigning a representative to fulfil your request
7/28/19, 10:57 PM - Guarav: Please hold

You can export your own WhatsApp chat history by using WhatsApp’s “export” feature. In order to analyze a log line from his file, Adarsh needs to:

  1. Load a log line from the file (we’ll start by assuming that each log line corresponds to a single message, although we’ll see later that this is not always the case)
  2. Parse the line to pull out the name, date, time, and contents of the message
  3. Calculate some statistics about the message - how long is its body, roughly how long did it take to type, etc?
  4. Combine these individual message statistics into aggregate statistics about the total number, average length, etc. of messages in the conversation

Adarsh has a choice to make for how he processes his log lines: batch or streaming?

In a batch approach, Adarsh would perform each of these 4 steps on a large number of lines in his log file - possibly even all of them - before moving onto the next step. He would load all log lines from the log file. Then he would parse all of the messages into their name, date, time and contents. Then he would calculate statistics for every parsed message, and then finally combine them all into aggregate statistics.

+-------+       +-------+       +-------+
|       |       |       |       |       |
|       |       |       |       |       |
|       |       |       |       |       |
| Load  +------>+ Parse +------>+Analyze|
|       |       |       |       |       |
|       |       |       |       |       |
|       |       |       |       |       |
+-------+       +-------+       +-------+

In a streaming approach, Adarsh would do the opposite. He would load one line from the input file at a time. After loading a single line, he would immediately parse that line into its name, date, time, and contents. Then he would calculate statistics for just that line, and fold those statistics into his running aggregate statistics. Then he would go back to the start and start fully processing the next line.

+-------+       +-------+       +-------+
| Load  +------>+ Parse +------>+Analyze|
+-------+       +-------+       +-------+
+-------+       +-------+       +-------+
| Load  +------>+ Parse +------>+Analyze|
+-------+       +-------+       +-------+
+-------+       +-------+       +-------+
| Load  +------>+ Parse +------>+Analyze|
+-------+       +-------+       +-------+

As is so often the case, neither batch or streaming is intrinsically better than the other, and the appropriate approach depends entirely on the context. For example, you’re more likely to prefer a streaming system when you’re processing new data in realtime as it comes in, and are more likely to prefer a batch system for background systems that need to process big chunks of data at once. As we’ll see next week, you often want to take a hybrid approach that gives you the best of both worlds.

Let’s look at some of the advantages, disadvantages, and general properties of batch and streaming pipelines.


A big advantage of a batch approach is that (in my opinion) the code is usually simpler and easier to read and write. Each step in the pipeline can be pulled out into its own function, and the resulting code largely explains itself. For example, in Ruby:

raw_log ="samplelog.txt")
parsed_messages = parse_raw_log(raw_log)
message_stats = calculate_stats(parsed_messages)

Each step in this pipeline can easily be unit-tested individually:

# (these variables would be filled in with actual data)
raw_log = "..."
expected_parsed_messages = [{...}, {...}]
actual_parsed_messages = parse_raw_log(raw_log)

if actual_parsed_messages == expected_parsed_messages
  puts("TEST PASSED!")
  puts("TEST FAILED!")

A second advantage of a batch approach is that it requires fewer trips to the original source of the data. This is not particularly relevant for our situation, since reading data from a file is a relatively fast operation that we don’t need worry about optimizing until our system reaches a much large scale. However, suppose that we were instead loading our raw log data from a database. Suppose also that every query to this database takes at least 1 second to execute, since the program has to go through the niceties of establishing a new connection to the database, as well as sending each query on a roundtrip to the database and back. A full streaming approach, where we repeatedly query for a single record at a time (the equivalent of reading a single line from a file at a time) would make us pay this fixed overhead of 1 second for every single record, making our program very inefficient. By contrast, a batch process, in which we query for and process big chunks of data all at once, would allow us to amortize the fixed query cost over a large number of rows.

We don’t even have to load and process every row at once in order to use a batch approach. Maybe we process our data by loading it in batches of 10, 100, 1000, however many records. In fact, when you think about it, streaming is just batch with a batch size of 1 (woah). We’ll blur these lines even more next week, but for this week we’ll stick with the pure dichotomy between batch and streaming.

One disadvantage of a batch approach is that it typically uses more RAM, or memory, to run than a streaming approach does. To see why, look again at the schematic batch pseudocode I laid out earlier:

raw_log ="samplelog.txt")
parsed_messages = parse_raw_log(raw_log)
message_stats = calculate_stats(parsed_messages)

When this (or any other) program runs, it stores its internal state and data in memory, including the data that is stored in variables. In this program, we start by reading the entire log file all at once. We assign the result of this read to a variable called raw_log. If the log file is 10MB in size then it’s reasonable to estimate that this variable will take up roughly 10MB of memory.

Next, we parse all of these raw log lines and assign the result to another variable, parsed_messages. Since the data in parsed_messages is essentially the same as that in raw_log but in a different form, parsed_messages probably takes up about the same amount of memory again as raw_log. We’re therefore using at least 20MB of memory to process a 10MB file. This isn’t the end of the world, but it is a shame.

Let’s therefore see how streaming works and how it is able to use less memory.


A pseudo-code sketch for a streaming approach might look something like this:

stats = {}"samplelog.txt").each_line do |l|
  message = parse_raw_log_line(l)
  stats = add_message_to_stats(message, stats)

Ruby’s each_line method reads the open file one line at a time, and passes each line into the block (the code between do and end) to be processed. each_line doesn’t read another line from the file until the block has finished executing for the previous one.

Inside the block we use parse_raw_log_line to parse the single line into a single message, and then use add_message_to_stats to add the message into our aggregate stats-so-far. Once the block has finished executing, the Ruby interpreter (the program that executes our Ruby code) is able to throw away (or garbage collect) the data for both the raw line and processed message, since it can see that the program won’t reference them again. This means that the Ruby interpreter can reuse the piece of memory in which they were stored to store future values instead.

Our streaming program therefore requires much less memory to run than our batch one. It doesn’t need to simultaneously hold in memory the entire raw contents of the file, plus the entire processed output. Instead, at any one time it only needs to store a single raw line and a single processed message.

Note that my claims of memory optimization are a high-level simplification, and the exact behavior of the Ruby interpreter is complex and hard to predict. However, we can still say with confidence that the streaming program will use less memory than the batch, even if we can’t say exactly how much less without measuring.

Code simplicity

“You said that streaming code is often more complex than batch code, but that streaming code snippet you wrote just now didn’t look too bad,” I hear you say. No, but that was on easy mode. As I mentioned briefly at the start of this post, WhatsApp message logs aren’t arranged neatly, one per line. Instead, if a message body contains a newline, the message logs will contain a newline too.

7/28/19, 11:07 PM - Guarav: I'm going to write a message split over many lines.
This is a new line but the same message.
This is another new line.
I'm out of control.
7/30/19, 11:03 PM - Kimi: Well I never.

This unfortunate fact messes up our nice simple rule of “one log line per message”, and makes both our batch and streaming approaches more complex. Now when we’re processing a log line, we don’t immediately know whether it is the end of the message or whether the message will be continued on the next line. We only know that a message has ended when we process the next log line and find that a new message has started. Then we have to go back to the message that we were previously assembling, and add it to our stats and do whatever other processing we want to do on it, before resuming our parsing of our new message.

(It may be possible to simplify this logic somewhat by going through the file backwards. Why this might help is left as an exercise for the reader)

Nonetheless, it is entirely possible to incorporate this new logic into a streaming approach. Here’s a reasonable, if still somewhat gnarly, attempt:

stats = {}
current_message = nil
File.readlines("samplelog.txt") do |l|
  # This method defined elsewhere
  parsed_line = parse_raw_log_line(l)

  # If this line is a new message, add the previous
  # message to our stats and reset current_message
  # to be this line.
  if parsed_line[:start_of_new_message]
    if !current_message.nil?
      stats = add_message_to_stats(current_message, stats)
    current_message = parsed_line

  # If this line is not a new message, it must be a
  # continuation of the previous line's message. We
  # therefore add its contents to the current message.
    current_message[:contents] += parsed_line[:contents]

# We need to manually add the final message to our stats,
# since it won't be added by the above loop (urgh)
stats = add_message_to_stats(current_message, stats)

I’m starting to get nervous. Previously the sections of our code that parse messages and calculate message statistics were entirely separate. This made them easy to understand and to write unit tests for. However, in this new version of our code, they have become deeply entwined. add_message_to_stats is now buried inside a double-nested if-statement inside the code that parses messages. It’s now hard to assess at a glance whether our code is doing approximately the right thing, and hard to write neat unit tests that just test message parsing.

As we will see next week, it is in fact possible to write streaming code that handles multi-line messages without any sacrifice of modularity. It just requires a bit more work and imagination.

By constast, updating our batch code to handle multi-line logs is easy. As a reminder, here’s our current, high-level batch structure again:

raw_log ="samplelog.txt")
parsed_messages = parse_raw_logs(raw_log)
message_stats = calculate_stats(parsed_messages)

In order to get this code to handle multi-line messages we will have to make roughly the same updates that we made to our streaming code. However, this time we can make all of the updates inside our parse_raw_logs function. The interface of the function won’t need to change at all - it will still accept an array of raw logs, and still return an array of parsed messages. The only thing that will change is the internal logic that does the parsing. The rest of our program, in particular the calculate_stats function, won’t have to know or care that anything has changed.

So what should Adarsh do?

If I were writing this program, I would start with a batch approach. The code is simpler and easier to get up and running, and even though it may be somewhat less memory-efficient, I don’t believe that this actually matters. I assume that we’re processing the WhatsApp message logs for a single person with, at most, a few hundred thousand messages. I also assume that we’re running the program on a modern, relatively powerful computer. If both of these assumptions are correct then the fact that our code is slightly inefficient won’t cause us any problems. Our computer will have plenty of memory to spare, and finishing our calculations in 28.5 seconds rather than 28.3 seconds won’t materially affect our lives. In this situation I am happy to make my code somewhat less efficient if this also makes it easier to write, read, and understand.

However, suppose that this script continues to evolve. Eventually it becomes the backbone of a system inside a squillion-dollar company, responsible for processing and analyzing billions of message logs from millions of users. Suddenly resource efficiency becomes critical. Speeding up the code and cutting down its memory usage could save us hundreds of hours and thousands of dollars of computation time. Faced with this new set of priorities, we may well want to switch to a more efficient streaming approach, or (more likely) a batch-streaming hybrid. So how could we modify our streaming code so as to make it as pleasant to work with as possible?

Find out in next week’s edition of Programming Feedback for Advanced Beginners.

Subscribe to my new work on programming, security, and a few other topics. Published a few times a month.
Follow me on Twitter ➜ RSS ➜

More on Programming Projects for Advanced Beginners